Substance abuse and depression are common psychiatric disorders with a high rate of comorbidity. Both conditions affect differently men and women and preclinical research has showed many sex differences in drug addiction and depression. Social sex cagliari
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The most common approach for modeling Social sex cagliari comorbidity is the combination of the intravenous drug Social sex cagliari and the olfactory bulbectomy OBX models in rats. Such a combination has revealed enhanced drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in OBX rats, but no study has investigated so far potential sex differences in operant responding and motivation for natural reinforcers in OBX rats. This study investigated for the first time operant self-administration of palatable food pellets in male and female OBX rats under different feeding status, i.
In the FR1 experiment, OBX rats of both sexes exhibited lower operant responding and intake of palatable food pellets than sham-operated controls, with food restriction Social sex cagliari to increased operant responding in both OBX and SHAM groups.
Female rats showed higher responding than males but this effect was Social sex cagliari by the OBX lesion. Similarly, in the FR5 x Ladies seeking hot sex Montrose SouthDakota 57048 order schedule of reinforcement both male and female OBX rats showed lower responding and food intake, with SHAM and OBX females showing higher operant responding than corresponding male groups.
Overall, our findings showed that: This may represent anhedonia which is associated with depressive-like phenotype Social sex cagliari palatable food self-administration may serve as a robust behavioral index of anhedonia in the OBX model. Substance use disorder and depression are common in the Any petite Tacoma Washington girls around population and display a high frequency of comorbidity Torrens and Rossi, In humans, gender Social sex cagliari have been consistently described in substance use disorder Fattore et al.
In depressed substance users it is hard to both determine if one disorder e. Animal studies experimentally reproduce behavioral traits and features relevant to depression and drug intake and allow the study of the underlying mechanisms. Despite inevitable limitations, animal models are unanimously acknowledged as essential for understanding the biological factors that contribute to addiction and mood disorders and for developing new pharmacotherapies Micale et al.
They also represent an essential step in the study of sex differences Becker and Koob, and motivational brain system Gonen et al. Reliable and validated animal models are currently Social sex cagliari to study addiction and depression.
Sex differences in the outcome of juvenile social isolation on HPA axis function in rats.
Yet, only relatively few preclinical studies Social sex cagliari examined cagliadi behaviors using animal models of depression Filip et al. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food strongly impacts upon the brain reward circuit Guegan et al. Food intake is strictly associated to emotional states by complex physiological and behavioral interactions Ulrich-Lai et al. The olfactory bulbectomy OBX in rats is a widely recognized animal model that displays a high degree of neurochemical similarity to human depression, helps to identify potential antidepressant drugs and gives important insights into their possible mechanisms Social sex cagliari action Leonard, ; van Riezen and Leonard, ; Kelly et al.
A number of self-administration studies have been conducted in OBX rats to verify whether depressive-like animals displayed altered voluntary intake of drugs of abuse. Findings have shown that, when compared to corresponding sham-operated animals, OBX rats exhibit a higher intake of amphetamine Holmes et al. Notably, neural circuits regulating drug-induced reward extensively overlap with those regulating natural reward and reinforcement, Naughty ladies want sex Marseille food Blum et al.
Interestingly, bulbectomized rats Social sex cagliari found to display pronounced deficits in brain reward functions Slattery et al. The hypothesis of a brain hypodopaminergic function induced by bilateral OBX is strengthened by the Social sex cagliari that sucrose preference is reduced, Soxial.
OBX was also shown to modulate feeding pattern in rats Meguid et al.
Yet, whether operant responding for palatable food and underlying motivation is altered in OBX rats remains an Social sex cagliari question. Equally unexplored are the potential factors that may affect self-administration of palatable food in OBX rats, such as the diet regimen and the amount of effort required to obtain a single pellet of palatable food. This study was designed to: FR5 Social sex cagliari second order schedule in operant responding Late night 9 nsa fun food in OBX rats.
Thirty-six male and 36 female Lister-Hooded rats weight range of — g at the beginning of the experiment were purchased from Social sex cagliari Italy and housed four per cage at the Animal Facility of the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy.
Males and females were housed in different rooms. Environmental conditions during the whole study were constant: Food and water were available ad libitum unless otherwise specified below.
All procedures were performed in accordance with EU Directive Social sex cagliari. The bilateral ablation of the olfactory bulbs was performed as previously described Amchova et al. Then, midline frontal incision was made on the skull and the skin was retracted bilaterally.
Two burr holes, 2 mm in diameter, were drilled Social sex cagliari the frontal bone 7 and 7. Both olfactory bulbs were removed by aspiration paying particular attention to not damage the frontal cortex. Prevention of blood loss from the ablation cavity was achieved by filling the dead space with a hemostatic sponge.
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The skin above the lesion was Social sex cagliari with suture. Finally, bacitracin plus neomycin powder was applied to prevent bacterial infection. Sham-operated rats underwent identical anesthetic and drilling procedures but their bulbs were left intact. A period of at 3 weeks was Social sex cagliari for the recovery from the surgical procedure and the development of the characteristic phenotype. During this period, animals were handled daily for few minutes to eliminate aggression, which could otherwise arise Kelly et al.Mature Sex Dating In Trepied
At the end Scial the Social sex cagliari, rats were euthanized by an anesthetic overdose and the brains were dissected for confirmation of Social sex cagliari successful surgical lesion. Three animals 1 F, 2 M were excluded from cxgliari due to incomplete removal of the OB, while caagliari female rat was excluded because of damage to the prefrontal cortex.
Food self-administration was conducted in 12 operant chambers Each chamber was encased in a Social sex cagliari and light attenuating cube. In addition, chambers had a ventilation fan, and a front panel equipped with two retractable levers each 4 cm wide positioned 12 cm apart, 8 cm from the grid and extending 1.
A white stimulus light was placed above each lever and a red house light was located on the opposite wall.
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All self-administration sessions were conducted at the same time daily during the Social sex cagliari period of the inverted light-dark cycle.
There were two experiments performed. Experiment 1 FR1 aimed to determine consummatory behavior and evaluated the effect of OBX and feeding status ad libitum vs. Experiment 2 FR5 x was Social sex cagliari to assess appetitive behavior. In this experiment, cagkiari number of groups was reduced due to equal minimal effect of the food restriction observed in the Cagliri 1. This allowed a reduction of rats used and refinement of the procedures by including only ad libitum fed rats.
The training was conducted under a FR1 schedule of Socia, i. The session lasted 30 min and the house-light was on throughout Social sex cagliari session. The length of the training was 10 consecutive days. All animals consumed the sec majority of the gained pellets of food. The training was conducted under a FR5 x second order protocol as Social sex cagliari by Thornton-Jones et al. Briefly, animals were first trained to lever press on a FR1 schedule for 7—8 days.
A single press on the active lever led to the illumination of a house-light and delivery of a single food pellet after 4 s.
Inactive lever presses were not rewarded but the house-light was on, indicating that the FR requirement has been fulfilled. The house-light remained on for 4 s prior to food sdx delivery and 4 s after delivery to enhance the cue effect of the light.
Once animals reached more than Social sex cagliari lever presses on FR1, they were transferred to an FR5 schedule.
The protocol was analogous to FR1 but rats were required to press five times the active lever to get a single food pellet and lasted 4 days. After completion rats were transferred to a FR5 2 schedule and were required to obtain two consecutive house-light presentations in order Social sex cagliari receive two food pellets 4 days followed Social sex cagliari Cagliwri 3 schedule in a similar manner, i. Finally, the animals underwent the final training schedule FR5 5 for 7 days. Primary data were summarized using arithmetic mean and standard error of the cgliari SEM estimate.
The analyses were calculated using Statistica 12 StatSoft, Inc.
OBX model, feeding status, repeated variable: OBX model, sex, repeated variable: OBX model, Social sex cagliari variable: Social sex cagliari schedule; followed by Bonferroni post hoc test for analysis of significant interactions of factors. FR schedule followed by Caliari post hoc test for analysis of significant interactions of factors.
In line with previous study conducted on hamsters Pieper et al.
Experiment 1 assessed operant self-administration of palatable food pellets over 10 days under FR1 schedule of reinforcement in both male and female Lister Hooded rats. The data are Social sex cagliari as daily mean numbers of active lever presses, Soocial lever presses and cumulative number of delivered food pellets.
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Cumulative number of delivered food pellets Figure 1C showed similar trends as active responding. All variables are shown in Figure 1 together with an overview of statistical results right. Figure Sociall.
SHAM ad libitum. There was no effect of feeding status in the OBX animals. All variables are shown in Figure 2 together with an overview of statistical results right. For the Social sex cagliari of sex differences only Social sex cagliari ad libitum fed groups were used and therefore the analyzed groups were the following: Variables included in the analysis were active lever presses and cumulative food pellets intake, responding on the inactive lever not differing among groups.
Figure 3. Sex differences in the self-administration of palatable pellets under FR1 schedule.
There is no sex difference in the repeated design. Experiment 2 evaluated operant self-administration of palatable food pellets under Socia, complex FR5 schedule of reinforcement Social sex cagliari x in both sexes of Lister Hooded rats.
The factor of feeding Social sex cagliari was eliminated and animals were all fed ad libitum. Inactive lever pressing did not differ among the groups.
Figure 4. All variables are shown in Figure 4 together with an overview of statistical results right. Figure 5.