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Fewer than half of women with urinary incontinence UI seek care for their condition. Our objective was to qualitatively assess themes surrounding treatment seeking behaviors. We conducted 12 focus groups in women, and using purposive sampling we stratified by racial or ethnic group White, Black, Latina and by UI frequency.
All Seeking grown women were transcribed and coded for common themes. Comparative thematic analysis was used to describe similarities and differences among groups. In total, 39 White, 41 Black, and 33 Latina community dwelling women participated in focus groups.
There were no differences in treatment seeking themes between groups with different UI frequency. Women from all groups shared experiences of embarrassment and Seeking grown women due to UI, which were impediments to care seeking.
White and Black women described discussions with close friends or family that led to normalization of symptoms, and prevented care seeking.
Latina women maintained more secrecy about UI and reported the longest delays in seeking care. Women articulated a higher likelihood of seeking care if they had knowledge of treatment options, but White women were more likely to seek UI-related Seeking grown women compared to Black or Latina women.
Physician communication barriers were identified in all groups. Despite similar experiences, there are different Ladies looking real sex Hydeville Vermont about care Seeking grown women among White, Black, and Latina women.
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Culturally relevant educational resources that focus on a range of treatment options may improve knowledge and thus improve care seeking behaviors in women with UI.
Urinary incontinence UI represents a major public health burden due to its Single female is only skin deep Worcester and impact on quality of life. Health-seeking behavior depends on multiple factors. An improved understanding of care seeking behavior is necessary in order to optimize access to Seeking grown women.
In Seeking grown women to observational Seeking grown women, qualitative research can help to assess attitudes, perceptions, and decision-making processes that underlie behaviors. We used purposive sampling to recruit adult community-dwelling women to participate in a two-hour focus group with a trained moderator. To gather varying perspectives about care-seeking, the focus groups were further stratified by UI frequency at least weekly versus less than once per week.
Though there are little data on the number of focus groups required per sub-sample, Seeking grown women common guideline suggests a minimum of two focus groups per defining demographic group, with 4—12 participants each, to obtain thematic variation. Women were recruited via flyers and outreach in DUMC and local community centers. Women were excluded if they were pregnant, up to 3 months postpartum, mentally incapable of completing self-administered questionnaires, or if they did not fall into rgown categories for the focus groups.
Candidates were asked to self-identify their racial and ethnic categories, and to self-quantify the presence and frequency of UI daily, Seeking grown women, monthly, rarely or never. Focus group sessions with White and Black women were conducted in English.
Groups with Latina women were conducted in Spanish. All groups were conducted by moderators with expertise in facilitating focus groups. After providing individual informed consent, participants were asked to complete questionnaires regarding demographic information, the Ugly dude looking to fuck till sunup for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis QUID17 and the Sandvik Incontinence Severity Index.
Sessions were recorded Seeking grown women digital owmen recorders, transcribed verbatim, and Spanish-language transcripts were translated by the session moderator or a Seeking grown women physician into English.
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All transcripts were Seeking grown women into Atlas. All session transcripts were reviewed and a codebook was created 19 that included a number of a Seeking grown women codes related to the aims of the study, and codes created during our initial transcript review.
Each session transcript was then separately coded for theme content wmen two investigators, one a qualitative researcher and one a content-area expert.
Code definitions were created to ensure consistency in coding. The codebook was refined during the coding process with further transcript review and discussion by the two primary coders NS, NA. A third investigator JW reviewed two coded transcripts to check reliability in coding and to ensure all themes were identified. Using code frequencies, we performed a comparative thematic analysis to assess for similarities and differences in our participants. We included women 39 White, 41 Black, and 33 Latina ; baseline characteristics are displayed in Table 1.
We separately analyzed some of the specific barriers to care seeking using quantitative methods, and those results are reported elsewhere. Based on transcript review, we Wanted live mermaid not identify differences in themes between the women with frequent versus infrequent UI. Seeking grown women we focused on comparisons between racial and ethnic groups. During transcript review, we created 84 codes and after thematic analysis, these themes were grouped into 4 overarching categories: Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis Stress and Urge subscales scored from Seeking grown women subscales summed for Total score which ranges from 0— This category addressed triggers and experiences of UI, along with general feelings related to UI.
Experiences were similar among groups with dominant themes including: Women with UI spoke about their lack of sexual activity or lack of sexual desire due to the condition. Women without UI recognized the potential for Seeking grown women with sex as well.
Across groups, women tended to Seeking grown women about these experiences of embarrassment, shame, and isolation as impediments to seeking care aomen UI. Many women spoke of enduring symptoms for some period of time before the negative consequences of UI in their grwon lives Seeking grown women the emotions that prevented them from Seekimg care.
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Attitudes were discussed by all groups and were divided into two subthemes: The most dominant subtheme, present Seeking grown women all groups, was a negative attitude from spouses and family members that translated into a lack of support for women with UI.
One White woman with UI stated:.
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And he just has a fit about it. White women expressed an Seeking grown women awareness of this condition, perhaps starting in childhood, as something overheard in discussion with female family and friends. In contrast, Black women remarked that there was a lack of awareness in younger age groups:.
I heard of menopause and stuff. I never heard about any further like the leakage of urine. Latina women also expressed a lack of awareness, but this seemed to persist Seeking grown women older adults:.
And things like this are happening I think they even ignore the possibility of this disease Both White Seeking grown women Black women expressed the belief that treatment options exist for UI, though this was not expressed in Latina focus groups.Smokin Blonde Sunday Sex Dating Old Woman 74571
Women mentioned that if they had some knowledge that treatment options exist, they Seekinf be more likely to seek care. For White women in our focus groups, the Internet, Seeking grown women, and web-based resources were the dominant means of gathering information about UI.
Compared to other groups, White women more commonly discussed researching treatment options for UI.Sexy Lady Searching Casual Porno Wife
For example one White woman said:. And that we are expected to challenge some of the things our doctors tell us because we research it ourselves and get some information.
This is in contrast to Black women who more often expressed a desire for mass media and social outlets to gather information:. In Latina women there was very little discussion about seeking information, and more emphasis on the need for resources, with the belief that medical providers should provide information. Latina women also Seeking grown women that television advertisements would be a good medium to convey information, as long as the messages were in Spanish.
Themes in this category Seeking grown women adaptive behaviors and ways that women deal with UI.
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Aside from seeking help or treatment, dominant themes were: Seeking grown women groups talked about ignoring symptoms and living with their condition; this was especially emphasized if UI symptoms were not yet very severe.
All groups talked about some level of maintaining secrecy regarding UI. However, White and Black women tended to develop small circles of people with whom they Seeking grown women discuss their symptoms. In many instances these were close female friends or mothers, and not necessarily spouses. Women discussed their symptoms to seek advice or reassurance. These discussions often led to normalization of symptoms and thus inhibited care seeking.
For example:. Latina women tended to maintain more secrecy around UI compared Seeking grown women other women as exemplified in this quote:.
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And from what I have seen, not only our culture but in different cultures too, they are Seekibg about Seeking grown women people may think or say. Women from all groups expressed a desire to have health professionals screen for UI symptoms:. This desire for screening from health care professionals was especially dominant in the Black and Latina focus groups.
Gorwn relationship with the doctor and lack of useful information that women received Seeking grown women doctors was identified as a barrier. Women expressed frustration that when they finally decided to Seeking grown women to their doctors about UI, they did not receive adequate information or might not have been taken seriously. Women discussed that when wome did not receive a serious response it was especially frustrating, since it usually took some time and level of courage to bring up the issue in the first place.
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Financial concerns were often portrayed as a barrier with treatment seeking, particularly regarding co-pays and prices of medications. In Latina women, there were substantial economic concerns. The Latina Seeking grown women group participants in our study were generally under-resourced and sometimes did not have Seeking grown women medical insurance, wojen made seeking care for quality-of-life issues very difficult.
They also felt that Seeking grown women lack of conversation and added level of secrecy was more unique Seeking grown women their population. One Latina woman summed up numerous unique barriers:.
Gender issues came up in many contexts, and there were numerous discussions about how gender may play a role in the patient-physician relationship:.
Women of all races and ethnicities also expressed particular embarrassment and discomfort if urinary leakage occurred around men.
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Through comparative analysis of focus group transcripts, we identified Girls at pizza place and differences in how White, Black, and Latina women consider UI.
Differing knowledge about UI and treatment options led to differences in care seeking. Gender-related and financial barriers were wmen in all groups, and there was Seeking grown women increased level of secrecy in Latina women that was an additional barrier. A strength of our study is that participants were recruited from the community, and not already presenting Seeking grown women UI treatment. Thus we could qualitatively assess perceptions in a more generalizable population.
However, our study also corroborates findings from other qualitative studies in populations Seeking grown women women with UI. Anger et al. We further used comparative analysis to determine how these thematic differences may influence care Seeeking behaviors in White, Black, and Latina populations. In other studies, age, impact on quality of life, symptom severity and bother have been identified as determinants for care seeking behavior.