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The oral use of jaheiro vaccine was replaced by the parenteral route in almost all countries after the Lubeck disaster. In contrast, Brazil retained the oral delivery of the vaccine until the mid-seventies when it was replaced by the intradermal route.

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This change in route of delivery was mainly secondary to pressure by medical practitioners based on the poor responses of oral immunized subjects to purified protein derivative PPD skin tests. Even after the change of route of delivery, Ataulpho de Paiva Foundation continued making the oral vaccine.

Key words: Vaccine BCG - Historical. In the Pasteur Institute of Lille, Calmette, accidentally obtained a mutated organism, after passages in vitro of the sample of M. These cultures did not lose the clumped morphology, and they maintained the same physical properties and displayed continued immunogenicity in animal experiments, using chimpanzees, guinea pigs, mice, and cattle Succi On June 21,the vaccine BCG was used Oral for Rio de janeiro today the first time in humans. At the request of a French doctor, who wanted to protect a newborn child, whose mother died Oral for Rio de janeiro today tuberculosis a few hours after the childbirth, and who would have to live with the grandmother, who also had tuberculosis.

Calmette Oral for Rio de janeiro today the culture of the bacillus BCG vaccineorally in three doses of 2 mg, soon after the birth Succi The child was reviewed for six months and did not show any sign of tuberculosis Lagrange One semester after that first immunization, between andSkinny stocking blonde another children were vaccinated by the same researchers Assis Inafter demonstration of the safety of the vaccine, Calmette decided to increase the total dose of BCG to 30 mg divided in three doses of 10 mg delivered in the same way.

Calmette chose the oral route for his studies, as the gastrointestinal tract is the natural route for infection by M. Inthey described a series of oral immunizations in babies. Between andanotherchildren were immunized without serious complications Sakula Later on, the vaccination program widened to include adults, but this time the BCG was given subcutaneously, and in considerably smaller doses.

This vaccination method Oral for Rio de janeiro today in France, inand had wide acceptance in the Scandinavian countries. During the years of tonurses of the Ulleval Hospital, in Oslo Norway observed that the oral administration of BCG failed to produce Oral for Rio de janeiro today response and, in agreement Stamford dating free fuck com the incorrect hypothesis that the cutaneous tissue is an important source of antibodies, they decided to apply the vaccine parenterally via the subcutaneous route.

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The vaccine was then given to two "non-allergic" naive individuals, who became positive to the cutaneous tuberculin test six weeks after the inoculation of the antigen. It became evident that BCG was not deleterious and that parenteral administration could enable "allergic" reaction to the PPD purified protein derivativeor tuberculin skin test, one of the criteria accepted as evidence of immunity against tuberculosis Heimbeck Consequently, the intradermic route became popular, especially afterwhen Wallgreen perfected the intradermic vaccination, inoculating 0.

Aiming to reduce the local reactions, other immunization routes were developed, parenteral introduced by Rosenthal and scarification, by Negre and Brettey.

These innovations were based upon the fast and durable emergence of the "tuberculosis allergy", as a positive test of the protective efficacy of vaccination with BCG. Oral immunization was Vicco Kentucky horny women by little being abandoned by most countries Ataulpho de Paiva Foundation's files.

After the presentation of their results to the National Academy of Medicine in Oral for Rio de janeiro today, the Pasteur Institut of Lille was authorized to distribute samples of the bacillus to other laboratories all over the world.

Between andat least 34 countries received the culture of BCG from the Pasteur Institute and, inanother 26 countries received cultures of BCG Oettinger et al. During the years of toCalmette reported that other children, born to mothers with tuberculosis Oral for Rio de janeiro today whose mother had contact with the disease, were vaccinated with BCG and Oral for Rio de janeiro today 3. On the other hand, among the non-vaccinated children, the death rate from tuberculosis was Inthe vaccine BCG became internationally accepted and mass vaccinations were started in France and Scandinavia.

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However, in Lubeck, Germany, ina serious accident happened that caused profound changes in vaccination fpr BCG; children were supposedly vaccinated with BCG and 73 died from tuberculosis in the Oral for Rio de janeiro today year, while another developed signs and symptoms of disease Sakula Subsequent investigations revealed that a culture of M.

Calmette died insad and discouraged after this incident in Germany.

Still in the s, the institutional incorporation of new technologies to prevent, diagnose, and treat tuberculosis was adopted, with BCG, microscopy, mass radiography, and thoracic surgery. The genealogy of BCG. Look 4 a heart amongst spam molecular analysis has deduced that flr primary deletion was most likely to be a 9. There have been 49 sub-strains in production and in use at one time or another Corbel et al.

RD2, a The genes for MPB70 and MPB83 are still present but not Odal in post sub-strains, which a recent WHO consultation feels may have implications for protective efficacy Corbel et al. From these observations and the known sequence of worldwide distribution to various laboratories Behr et al. In Brazil, fromthe medical speeches of the Imperial Academy in Rio de Janeiro capital of the Republic called attention for the high mortality Oral for Rio de janeiro today caused by tuberculosis, which at that time was responsible for The League, then, developed Oral for Rio de janeiro today intense campaign against tuberculosis Fig.

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Even today, the reason why that sample was not taken to Uruguay is still unknown. Regarding the personality of Arlindo de Assis, Rosemberg points out his positioning towards the episode that happened in Lubeck; Arlindo insisted on the vaccination, Oral for Rio de janeiro today that the accident had been caused by a specific lot of the Oral for Rio de janeiro today.

Despite opposition, he continued with BCG vaccination in Brazil, a decision that was later proved to be right. Inthree doses were given on jxneiro days during the first ten days after birth. Initially a total of 60 mg of BCG was given but later, from90 mg was given Assis Just in that year, about 19, babies were vaccinated with Ruo oral BCG, which indicates how the vaccine had been accepted by society as a whole.

Besides the newborn infants, the Woman wants sex tonight Wyco program was extended to the "non-allergic" individuals of other ages. To those individuals, mg of oral BCG used to be administered, always in the mornings, after an over night fast. By the end ofthe total "non-allergic" individuals immunized were approximately Assis a.

As well as immunizing the population of the Federal District Rio de Janeirothe FAP also had to supply other states, which did not have the means to produce the vaccine, so that, by the end of57, ampoules of 30 mg had been distributed by FAP and overdelivered by the National Service of Tuberculosis Assis a.

During the years of61 newly born children were immunized by the method called "recurrent BCG vaccination", which consisted of the oral administration of mg each month, for six months. Orxl first results of the new methodology were the absence Janero proven or even suspected tuberculosis mortality or morbidity; the reduction of infant mortality to 3.

Assis believed that such a vaccination program would increase the chances of preventing the disease in individuals who were in contact with tuberculosis Oral for Rio de janeiro today The immunization practice allowed for safe contact between vaccinated individuals and tuberculosis patients without needing to isolate the patient with tuberculosis Assis Swingers in Salt Lake City Utah nc This immunization schedule, however, brought some problems, mainly with mass campaigns due to the difficulties of repeating six doses, monthly or biweekly, in the same individuals of a population, without mentioning the increase in production in large scale by the specialized laboratories in order to supply the increased vaccine demand Assis Thus, Assis decided that it would be better to immunize with only one dose calmetizationboth the urban and rural populations, as well as the individuals and families without contact with tuberculosis.

On the other hand, the recurrent vaccination would be indicated for those groups in permanent contact with the infection. Then, the calmetization in mass would be restricted to the health centers, while the fod vaccination to the specialized areas of the anti-tuberculosis fight. Init was decided to immunize Oral for Rio de janeiro today by oral administration of a single dose of mg BCG and, in "non-allergic" individuals, a single dose Looking for a swinger women Tallahassee mg.

In both cases, the positive response to the cutaneous test occurred Ataulpho de Paiva Foundation's files.

Afterthe intradermic route todat the method jabeiro in national programs of vaccination against tuberculosis. In spite of that, the oral vaccination continued to be used in neonates until Gerhardt et al. From on, the oral Oral for Rio de janeiro today was no longer practiced routinely in health centers. That vaccine schedule continued untilwhen a single dose was established 0.

In Brazil, the vaccine BCG was administered exclusively via the oral route untilwhen nurses were trained to vaccinate children by using the same route as the skin test, i. The skin tests, as dr by WHO as fromhad only been applied in Brazil inthen, Phone sex personals La Selle-La-forge at all the comparable national and foreign data, it was shown that PPD should be used in a single and weak dose Oral for Rio de janeiro today Studies performed todqy researchers at the Escola Oral for Rio de janeiro today de Medicina strongly contributed to the change of immunization route, after they observed that individuals immunized with oral BCG would have a weak or no response to the cutaneous test, unlike those immunized with the intradermal route Succi Economical and operational reasons also contributed to the abandonment of the oral route Mortatti et al.

The poor response to the cutaneous test increased the doubts regarding the effectiveness of BCG vaccination.

Assis and Carvalho observed that, one week after vaccinating neonates with oral BCG, none of them had reacted positively to the cutaneous tests, but they became positive in After that period, the increase in the reaction was not significant, reaching the maximum level between six and 12 months after vaccination. In the same study, Assis and Carvalho affirm that the allergy produced by oral immunization was as great as that caused by the parenteral route subcutaneous, intracutaneous or intradermal.

The absence of cutaneous response in Another research accomplished by Arlindo de Assis and Alvimar de Carvalho, instudied the emergence of tuberculin allergy in most of the individuals immunized with oral BCG, neonates, Oral for Rio de janeiro today adults. All the 4, children were selected Oral for Rio de janeiro today families exempt of virulent tuberculosis infection and examined in the clinic belonging to the BCG vaccination department of FAP. The study was performed with two months intervals in the course of the first two years of age.

Through the Fig. That tuberculin allergy specifically produced by oral BCG presents well defined characters, being almost always moderate and regressive Assis Another very interesting study by Arlindo de Assis is the one that aimed to investigate the effects of the continuous use of really high doses of BCG in humans, with a positive tuberculin skin test, not for immunization purposes, but in order to verify that oral Oral for Rio de janeiro today had no effect on patients with evidence of prior tuberculous exposure.

For such, two volunteers, the author himself and his assistant, submitted themselves to vaccination with oral BCG. Oral for Rio de janeiro today had tuberculosis disease, but they reacted to the tuberculin skin test and had radiographic features of residual tuberculosis prime-infection.

The experiment consisted of the ingestion of a live suspension of BCG, after an overnight fast and then being nil-by-mouth for 1 h after the ingestion of the BCG. Such ingestions were daily, non-stop, for consecutive months, with some modifications in one of the cases, i. We should point out that such rates were much higher than the ordinary use for the tuberculosis prevention at that time. Finally, the use of BCG stopped, while both the tuberculin skin test and radiological investigations continued Assis b.

Parallel to the clinical health check-ups, radiographic tests were made and were unaffected nothing abnormal appearedtuberculin tests had a degree of attenuation resulting from the Hot wives looking nsa Durham use of BCG.

Haematological tests white blood cell counts and determination of sedimentation speed showed only a discreet tendency to relative Oral for Rio de janeiro today, without well-defined characteristics. There was no direct evidence of BCG causing any damage to the two volunteers' health, either during or after having finished the experiment 16 and 10 months, respectively, Melbourne dating posts each one.

It was felt to be that the doses supplied, despite being high and of long lasting use, as well as with radiological evidence of prime-infection, produced immune modulation and decreased hypersensitivity, demonstrated by Wife seeking hot sex OR Winston 97496 decrease in the tuberculin skin reactions Assis a Fig. No direct effect arising from the use of the Calmette bacillus harmed the two volunteers' health, who received, during the course of the research, over 2 g of BCG doses.

During and after having finished the experience 16 and Oral for Rio de janeiro today months, respectively for each one several X-rays were done during todaj immunizations and they were unchanged. This study Oral for Rio de janeiro today that the allergic adult without Casual Dating Vine grove Kentucky 40175 tuberculosis, tolerates BCG administered by the digestive route in doses rather superior than those which had been used until that moment, proving BCG to be perfectly innocuous and unable of mobilizing the old lesions of prime-infection Assis janneiro.

Inthe high mortality by tuberculosis in the 1st year of life of new born children that lived with individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis, forced Arlindo de Assis to develop a new vaccination program with BCG for 62 newly born from Rio of Janeiro who remained exposed to tuberculosis patients from their first days of life, and without possibility of segregation.

The follow up continued until the babies' 2nd year of life. The schedule, named "Recurrent BCG vaccination", foresaw the administration ttoday BCG after birth, followed by re-vaccinations every month during six months.

The prime-immunization was with three doses of 30 mg on intervals of two to three days, starting from the 1st week of life.